Response of salinity intrusion to the hydrodynamic conditions and river mouth morphological changes induced by the 2011 tsunami
The 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and tsunami were one of the most devastating natural disasters in history. It caused significant ground subsidence and erosion along the Japan coastline. The Natori river mouth which is a habitat for both fishes and bivalves, as an important fishing ground, has been damaged by the tsunami because of the change of the process of salt transport in an estuarine system. In general, salinity intrusion into the river mouth can be affected by many factors such as river water discharge and tidal level, as well as estuarine morphology. In this study, the response of salinity intrusion to the river mouth morphological changes induced by the 2011 Tsunami is investigated. The topographical changes caused by the tsunami are mainly divided into two stages. The first is the direct action of the tsunami, which caused the severe scouring of the coast and the widening of the river. The results have clearly indicated that after tsunami the salt water can intrude much further upstream compare to the condition before the tsunami event. Another changes occurred during the restoration process after the tsunami. The sediment accumulation in the river channel prevented the salt water from entering the river channel, which reduced the salt intrusion degree. However, the effect of the morphology change caused directly by the tsunami is far greater than the sedimentation of the river.
salinity intrusion; river morphology; tsunami impact; numerical simulation; EFDC model.
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